#100AfricanWomenWriters: 5. Radwa Ashour

I renounced writing. I said that I was no good, and my resolution hit home as sharply and as decisively as a guillotine. Several years passed and then all of a sudden, I found that writing reappeared with an insistent, importuning presence.
That was Egyptian writer, activist and professor of American and English literature Radwa Ashour writing about her experience with writing in a 1993 issue of Alif journal. It was from a testimony presented earlier at a conference in 1988.

Radwa Ashour in her office at the Department of English at Ain Shams University in 1993

To read Ashour's struggles with writing is extremely heartening considering Ashour is perhaps one of the most influential writers in the Arab region, who has written numerous books: seven novels, an autobiography, two collections of short stories and five criticism books. There's also a major 4-volume work on Arab women writers, she co-edited in 2004 (there is also an abridged English edition of the original Arabic version) and works that Ashour co-translated from English to Arabic (Volume 9 of The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism). Ashour also won numerous awards including the 2007 Constantine Cavafy Prize for Literature and the 2011 Owais Prize.

Born in Cairo in 1946, Radwa Ashour came from 'a literary and scholarly family' as written in the Guardian:

... her father, Mustafa Ashour, was a lawyer but had strong literary interests, while her mother, Mai Azzam, was a poet and artist. Radwa evoked in her writing how she was raised to recite the poetic corpus of Arabic literature by her grandfather Abdelwahab Azzam, a diplomat and professor of oriental studies and literature at Cairo University, who first translated the classic Persian Book of Kings (Shahnama) into Arabic, as well as other Oriental classics.

Ashour got a B.A. in English in 1967 and M.A in comparative literature in 1972 - both from Cairo University, before receiving a PhD in African-American literature from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst in 1975. Her dissertation was titled 'The Search for a Black Poetics: A Study of African-American Critical Writings'. Following her doctorate, Ashour returned to Cairo and tool a position at Ain Shams University - becoming a professor of English and comparative literature in 1986 and the head of department of English language and literature from 1990 to 1993.

A bibliography of Radwa Ashour's works in English can be found on ArabLit, but Ashour's first book was a memoir, and of her experience doing a PhD on African American Literature in the United States in the 70s. It was written when her 'writing reappeared' and published in 1983. Writing's 'insistent, importuning presence' continued and her first novel, Warm Stonewas published in 1985. 

Some of Radwa Ashour's Books in Arabic. Cover images via Goodreads

In 1992, Siraaj, An Arab Tale was first published in Arabic (and translated into English in 2007). In her introduction for the English edition of Siraaj Barbara Romaine writes that one of the unique aspects of the novel is that it depicts something 'rare in Arabic literature ... the practice of slavery within Arab societies'. As further explained by Barbara Romaine: 
The novel tells the story of two late-nineteenth-century thwarted rebellions: a fictional uprising on an imagined island in the Indian Ocean, and Ahmed Orabi's historic - albeit ultimately unsuccessful - revolt against the khedive of Egypt ... The setting of the main plot is the aforementioned island, located in imagination off the east coast of Africa, with an Arab sultan who rules over a population consisting of Arab labouring poor and enslaved Africans. The subplot concerning the character Said and his journey is told in the context of the bombardment of Alexandria in 1882, culminating in Orabi's defeat and the British occupation of Egypt. 
Perhaps Ashour's most famous work is the Granada Trilogy - with Part 1 Granada voted in 2011 as one of the best 105 Arab books of the 20th century by the Arab Writers Union. Granada also won the Cairo International Book Fair Book of the Year Award in 1994, while The Trilogy won the First Prize of the First Arab Woman Book Fair in 1995. While the Trilogy has been translated into Spanish, (as far as I am aware) only Part 1 has been translated into English. 

Cover of Granda Trilogy illustrated by Egyptian painter and illustrator, Helmi al Touni in 2001
As written by Maria Rosa Menocal in the Foreword of the 2003 English translation: 
'Granada' is a work of historical fiction set in the aftermath of the Castilian takeover of the Islamic kingdom Granada in 1942. It tells the story of an extended family grappling with the consequences of that political catastrophe for the Muslim community. 
Ashour's other novels (in English) includes The Woman from Tantoura, following the life of a young girl from her days in the village of al-Tantoura in Palestine up to the dawn of the new centurySpectres which tells the story of two women born on the same day and their lives; and Blue Lorries - centred Nada - a woman whose life has been filled with protests and political activism. The political activism in most of Ashour's books stems from the fact that she was also vey politically active throughout her life  - she founded the National Committee Against Zionism in Egyptian Universities, and towards the end of her life, was a founding member of the March 9 Movement for the independence of Egyptian universities. Her writing was also often used to champion human rights and to challenge the dominant discourse.

Some of Radwa Ashour's books in English.
Passing away in 2014 in Cairo, Ashour's last work, Al-Sarkha (I've seen it translated as both 'The Cry' and 'The Scream') is part two to Heavier than Radwa. Both books are described as
... a compact amalgam weaved with rare sensitivity, recording her triumphant journey through illness, where she underwent a number of surgeries to remove the brain tumour, in December 2010 and in February 2013. The details of the horrifying series of surgical operations intersect with events of the Egyptian revolution, which broke out while she was in a hospital in Washington, DC.

Published, after she had passed away - on what would have been her birthday -  a review of the second part notes

... the published text of 'The Cry' isn't the final draft. The author didn't finalise the book and there are some blank pages and headnotes or chapter titles the author wished to tackle but didn't arrive to. She stopped writing when the illness intensified in September 2014.
A truly remarkable writer, academic, translator and political activist, Ashour's writing not only reflected her own gendered experience and national identity: 'As a woman and as a person in Egypt, in a third world country ... this is what I know most: thwarted aspirations'; but was also written in 'self-defence and in defence of countless others with whom I identify or who are like me'.

#100AfricanWomenWriters: 4. Nana Asma'u

Drawing of Nana Asma'u via @Adamaniac

Asma'u bint 'Uthman b. Fudi, or Nana Asma’u as she was known, was born in a village called Degel (north-west of Sokoto) in about 1793. Her father, Shehu Usman dan Fodio, was the leader of the village – he was a religious teacher, he fought a Jihad (he won that). He was also a prolific writer, and (I should mention) he was the founder of the Sokoto Caliphate.  But this isn't about dan Fodio, but scholar, poet, community leader and political commentator Nana Asma'u. 
Source: One Woman's Jihad by Beverly B. Mack and Jean Boyd

 As Beverly B. Mack and Jean Boyd wrote in their book One Woman's Jihad, Asma'u 'was a nineteenth-century Muslim West African women of renown'. Specifically she:

... was active in politics, education and social reform; she was a prolific author, popular teacher and renowned scholar and intellectual ... During warfare, she was an eyewitness to battles which she reported in her written works ... An accomplished author, Asma'u was well educated, quadrilingual (in Arabic, Fulfulde, Hausa and Tamacheck), and a respected scholar of international repute who was in communication with scholars throughout the sub-Saharan African Muslin world.

As Mack and Boyd go on to discuss:

The many books written by leaders of the [Sokoto] Caliphate ... along with Asmau's poetic works were meant as practical guides to individuals at every possible level of social status and degree of academic achievement, from the illiterate to the scholarly. Those who could not read them could hear them; those who could not listen to Arabic or Fulfulde heard Hausa phrases, or particular messages in Hausa. Asma'u, like her colleagues, wrote for the betterment of the community and promotion of the 'Sunna', not for personal fame or gain.

A twin, whose brother passed away in 1817, Asmau's spent the first decade of her life focused on scholarly study, at eleven her community migrated to escape persecution, at fourteen she married Gidado dan Laima (who later became the chief adviser [Waziri] of one of Asma'u brother, Caliph Muhammad Bello) and had six sons (one passed away as an infant).

One of Asma'u's first book was The Way of the Pious. It was written in 1820 and was about morality. Asma'u continued to write poems and prose until she passed away in 1864/5. Her works dealt with war, the Sunna and women's roles in the Qadiriyya community. It is said that fifty-two of her works have been discovered, although it could be as high as sixty-one if translations are included - ten of which are 'teaching poems' and seventeen elegies. 

Source: The Caliph's Sister by Jean Boyd

It's possible to date Asam'u's writings, because as Jean Boyd writes in the Preface of her brilliant book The Caliph's Sister, most of Asmau's work was dated. Nana Asma’u’s life and legacy was brilliantly captured in The Caliph’s Sister, which Boyd started writing in the 1980s. Boyd first wrote about Asma’u when a chapter was needed on her for a book about women to be published as part of the 2nd World Black and African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) – the person approached was unable to do it and proposed Boyd as a name – that was in August 1975. As Boyd writes:

... the state of my knowledge, and that of most people, about Asma’u was sketchy. She was certainly famous, but the known facts were few and were limited to the following: she was the Shehu’s daughter and the sister of Bello, whom she had helped, in a miraculous way, when she was making his final attack on Alkalawa; she wrote poetry and her five compositions in Arabic were included in the standard list of Jihad literature. Everyone knew of her but no one I spoke to was able to tell me any details about her life.

By April 1978, Boyd was able to put together a three-volume catalogue of Asmau’s works. In 1985, Boyd wrote eight programmes on Asma’u for the BBC World Service which was broadcast in November 1986. Another brilliant piece on Asma'u is Jean Boyd and Beverly Mack's Collected Works of Nana Asma’u, Daughter of Usman dan Fodio (1793-1864), which compiles her impressive body of poems and treatises in Arabic, the Fula language, and Hausa. 

Selected books on Nana Asma'u

What we know from Boyd's extensive research (as well as from her other collaborations) is that Asma’u wrote many works in Fulfulde and Hausa. Most of Asma'u's writings were also response to happenings in her time. An example is her 1821 short poem in Fulfulde, Fa'inna nma'a 'asur i'asuran, directed against the Tuareg chief Ibra who had invaded the caliphate. There is also her 1857 poem, Gawakuke Ma'unde, which gave a graphic description of the battle of Gawakuke in 1836. Here is an excerpt from an article Jean Boyd and Murray Last's wrote on Nana Asma'u:

Then Bello ordered the standards to be unfurled; he told his men to prepare; he said, 'to-day the unbelievers will be put to shame'. The men got ready and lined up with their weapons; the spearheads looked like fields of ripe millet. With standards flying Bello rode to take up his position at the head (of his men); swords and spears glittered. Round the matchless Caliph the host was as numerous as (flocks of) quela birds or (swarms of) locusts.

Asma'u also translated her brother, Caliph Muhammad Bello's writings into Fulfulde and Hausa. After her brother's death, Asma'u and her husband wrote nine works (five of which were written by Usma'u) on the lives of her father (Shehu) and brother (Bello) - these have been used by historians. 

Source: The Caliph's Sister by Jean Boyd

Asma'u also used her poetry for what she is probably best known for - women's education and the classes she held as part of the Yan Taru movement. Nana Asma'u started teaching women in her room in her home with Gidado; and out of these classes developed the regular system whereby women from outlying villages came to Sokoto and received extended instruction. As written here

The key teaching method employed by the jaji was the repetition and memorisation of poetry composed by Asma’u and other female scholars. Asma'u made extensive use of mnemonic devices in her poetry, enabling her works to be easily memorised by teachers and students, and explained in further detail during instruction. 

Through her 'teaching poems' Asma'u taught generations of women and children. Asma'u passed away in 1864/5 - although her classes continued (led by her sister Mariam and her niece Ta Modi), and in the 1870s moved to where her sister lived. A truly phenomenal woman, if you want to learn more about Asma'u, I would recommend the three books cited here: The Caliph's SisterOne Woman's Jihad, and Collected Works. There's also Educating Muslim Women by Mack and Boyd (although I haven't read that one). The SOAS library in London also has archival material of Asma'u's writings.

From L-R: Qasidar na roki AllahWafar gode Allahu mai wadaIna gode Allah da yai annur na ahmada


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